mercredi 30 mai 2012

Historical Jesus, some questions

Dear students, this is an introduction to subject of Christology historical Jesus - Systematic Theology II - which you should read for class. Best wishes to all. JP.

Passion is a March / Dish / Dilated / Road that hurts / Charming flower / Labyrinth / Hold / network seems every root / root only / When not singing thunder / Transfiguration . " 
(Transfiguration, Cordel do Fogo Encantado).

This study search biblical foundations of social policy work of Jesus with text of Luke 4.14-30 and we take as reference Ben Witherington III [1] and John Howard Yoder [2].

Witherington III examines social marginality of Jesus from realities expressed by the priestly hierarchy of time about it. By not having a father was not known and recognized right to a name. So it was seen as someone unknown pedigree. And fact of being named man of Nazareth, came from a village of peasants and artisans, little known and away from trade routes, made their geographical identity also not classify him as possible messianic figure.
Portrait of the Palestinian figured Yeshua

Genealogy and geography made him a Jew on margins socially, which in its origins, did not deserve credit. But, this man-no-name, this man-without-the-holy-land started its activities in a manner at least unusual in synagogue at Nazareth, as Luke describes.

According Yoder, in time, there was a synagogue reading of prophets regularly prescribed. And fact that this passage was not present in later lectionaries known, tends to indicate that Jesus chose it on purpose. Morris says that this hypothesis corroborates statement of Luke: "opening the book, he found the place where it was written". [3]  Here two details deserve to be highlighted: first, is only clear reference in Gospels that Jesus knew how to read. And second, why, when reading Isaiah 61.1-2, he omitted a phrase,  to heal the brokenhearted  and added another,  liberate the oppressed, which is in Isaiah 58:6? In fact, we used the texts considered most useful to exposition of his political and social platform.

Use he made of political terms, as a kingdom and gospel, show that such selectivity had a purpose: to speak of a political promise of social intervention alternative to those powers present at the time. So, if you read text presented by Jesus, rabbinic perspective, we are facing a recurrence of promises of jubilee, when accumulated injustices should be remedied for years. The identity of man speaks not questioned claimed that Palestine would be rescued in time scale, but it should get impact on Palestinian life supportive of sabbatical year.

Likewise, coming kingdom emerged as a prophetic understanding of sabbatical year. Thus, Saturday of week is on Saturday widened years, which should be seventh of rest and retirement, as restored what had been exhausted, nature and people. This collection of regulations found in Leviticus 25.1-26.2 concernia property rights of land ownership and people, which formed basis of wealth. Purpose was to set limits on right of possession, since all property, nature and people, belong to God. Thus, anyone could own nature and people permanently, because this right belongs to God. And cycle of seven sabbatical years flowed into fiftieth year, messianic Jubilee (Lev. 25.8-24), which will only appear again throughout Old Testament only in Figures 36.4. But Jeremiah, in chapter 34.8-17 spoke of social reform in besieged Jerusalem, when Zedekiah proclaimed freedom of Hebrew slaves. Similarly, we find in Isaiah 58.6-12 reform as part of prophetic vision. In this sense, reform of jubilee pointed to economic restructuring and socio-political relations between peoples of Palestine.
Academic research on the historical Jesus

It is interesting that Josephus has stated years after presence of Jesus in Nazareth, that "there is no single Hebrew who, even today, not obey laws concerning sabbatical year as if Moses were there to punish him for offenses, and that even in cases where a violation would go unnoticed ". [4]

Despite assertion of Josephus, we know that an economic and social environment from provisions of Leviticus 25, which also included redistribution of property, was never literally lived among Jews. So it fell to a "no-promised land" of year to raise discourse of liberation.

Proposed reform of marginal Jesus was prophetic announcement of entry into force of a new era, where listeners accept news. I was not referring to a historical event, but a reaffirmation of hope known his listeners: reform and socio-economic policy that should change relations between Palestinian people.

The man known genealogy and geography placed centrality of marginal reform on himself by saying that at that time, synagogue of Nazareth,prophetic promise was fulfilled. And this is what Lucas will show the sequence of his Gospel: reform was the promised marginal Messiah.


ASH, AL  The Gospel According to Luke . New York: Christian Life, 1980.
Bratcher, R.  A Translator's Guide to The Gospel of Luke.  London: UBS, 1982.
BOFF, Leonardo,  Jesus Christ, Liberator , 16th edition Petrópolis, Voices.
Crossan, John Dominic,  The Historical Jesus, the life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant , St Paul, Wellington, 1994.
ECHEGARAY, Hugo,  The Practice of Jesus , Petrópolis, Voices, 1982.
Fitzmyer, JA The  Gospel According to Luke I-IX . New York: Doubleday, 1981.
GODET, F. A  Commentary on The Gospel of St. Luke . Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, SD
JONES, E. Stanley,  alternative to communism Christ , New York, 1953.
MORRIS, L.  Lucas - Introduction and Review . New York: New Life, 1990.
NORTH, Robert SJ,  Sociology of Biblical Jubilee , Rome, the Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1954.
PIKAZA, Xabier,  Figure of Jesus: Prophet, Healer, Rabbi, Messiah , Petrópolis, Voices, 1995.
PLUMMER, A.  Gospel According to St. Luke . ICC. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, nd
Reiling, J. & SWELLENGREBEL.  The Translator's Handbook on The Gospel of Luke .  Leiden: UBS, 1971.
SCHMID, J.  El evangelio Según San Lucas .  Barcelona: Herder, 1968.
Trocme, Etienne,  Jesus-Christ et la révolution non-violent  (VV.AA.), chap. III, Geneva, Labor et fides, 1961.
Vermes, G. Jesus,  the Jew , California, Loyola, 1990.
WITHERINGTON III , Ben,  The Christology of Jesus , Minneapolis, Fortress, 1990.
YODER , John Howard,  The Politics of Jesus , St. Leopold Synod, 1988.

[1]  Ben Witherington III,  The Christology of Jesus , Minneapolis, Fortress, 1990.
[2]  John Howard Yoder, The Politics of Jesus, St. Leopold Synod, 1988.
[3]  L. Leon Morris, Lucas, introduction and commentary, New York, 1990, p. 101.
[4]  Josephus,  Antiquitates III , 15, 3.

Research presented at the  III Brazilian Congress on Biblical Research / PUC-SP , from 08 to 10 September 2008.

Read also
Jorge Pinheiro, Biblical and Systematic Theology, Protestant practice of the ultimatum , Editorial Source, 2012, Chapter Five: The Christ.
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